Do you know from where does the power of Linux comes from? Well Linux is getting richer everyday with the presence of so much distros and every distro possessing a large group of users and developers working voluntarily on the project. Linux distributions come in all shapes and sizes, and they’re aimed at addressing every conceivable need. This article aims at briefing why a certain distro exist, who are the targeted user of the distro, and what special features it has as compared to its’ counterpart.
Read Also : 10 Top Linux Distributions of 2012
Debian is extremely stable, and this makes it ideal for servers. Debian maintains three official and a non-free repository and this has inspired several distributions (e.g., Ubuntu, Kali, etc). Debian is the mother OS of a number of Linux distribution. It has more than 37,500 packages and any other distro that can beat Debian in this regard is Gentoo. Debian uses apt or aptitude to install and update software.
Debian is an operating system certainly not for Newbies but for System Administrators and Advanced users. Debian is available for most of the architecture (Processor) of today.
Download Debian ISO Images: http://www.debian.org/distrib/
Installation of Debian with Screen shots: Debian 7.0 “Wheezy” Installation Guide
Gentoo is an Operating system that contains a large number of packages as Debian do. Gentoo doesn’t comes in pre-compiled form but needed to be compiled every-time for every system. Even Gentoo community finds it difficult to install and use it, however it is considered perfect for learning and to know internal working of a Linux OS. It is always said for Gentoo “If you learn a Linux distro you learn that distro, if you learn Gentoo you learn Linux”. Gentoo uses portage to install and update software.
Gentoo is an operating System which is for those who already know their way in Linux.
Download and Installation of Gentoo: http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/where.xml
Ubuntu is a derivative of Debian and is the most popular free operating system. Ubuntu coverage focuses on its use in that market and is popular on server, cloud computing and even some of the mobile devices running Ubuntu Linux. Being a derivative of Debian Gnu Linux most of its processes, look and feel remains same to Debian. It uses apt package management, install and update. It is one of the easiest Distro available today. Ubuntu uses apt based package manager.
Ubuntu is an operating system on which a newbie must have their hands.
Download Ubuntu ISO Images: http://www.ubuntu.com/download
Installation of Ubuntu with Screen shots: Ubuntu 13.04 “Raring Ringtail” Installation Guide
4. Damn Vulnerable Linux
Sure most of you would not be knowing about this distro, still this distro made a place in this article. What’s so important in this?. Damn Vulnerable Linux is exactly what it sounds like. Vulnerable Linux (DVL) is everything a good Linux distribution isn’t. It intentionally is bundled with broken, ill-configured, outdated, and exploitable software that makes it vulnerable to attacks.
It aims to train Linux Admins. And what else could have been better than to hand them a broken distribution to fix? With older/broken versions of Apache, MySQL, PHP, FTP, and SSH, your admins in training will have their hands full.
Damn Vulnerable Linux is a training laboratory.
Download Damn Vulnerable Linux (DVL) ISO Images: DVL_1.5_Infectious_Disease.iso
5. Red Hat Enterprise Linux
It is the first Linux distro targeted for commercial market. It is release in server versions and for a number of processor architecture including x86 and x86_64. Red Hat trains and certifies system admins through courses RHCSA/RHCE. On global level 80% of total profit comes from support and 20% from training and certification however this is not the case in India.
In India Red Hat earns 80% from certification and training and only 20% from support. Whereas, Fedora is a platform, rather a testing lab where a new product or application is developed, when stable it is bundled with Red Hat and includes support. Red Hat provides very much stable applications but is notorious for packing too old packages in the box and the cost of support is really considerable. However when security is the prime concern, RHEL is a perfect distribution, it uses YUM Package Manager.
Red Hat is the first choice of System administrators with variety of packages and nice support.
Since RHEL is Commercialised, it is not available for free. However you can download the Beta-Release for Educational purpose.
Download RHEL Beta DVD ISO Images: RedHat Enterprise Linux (Beta)
Installation of RHEL 6 with Screen-shots: RHEL 6 Installation Guide
Note: Marc Ewin, who created this distro is believed to name his product as Red Hat, as he lost Red Coloured Hat which seems lovely to him and was presented by his grand-pa on one of his birthday.
CentOS is an Enterprise Linux Distro which is rebuild using free sources available in Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This rebuild just removes the trademark logo and a very slight change in Binary packages. Those who want a taste of Red Hat Enterprise Linux without paying a considerable amount of money, they must give CentOS a try. Moreover CentOS seems identical in look and action to its mother RHEL. CentOS uses YUM for Package Management.
Very-stable packages and anyone who want to test the working of server on Desktop must give this OS a try.
Download CentOS 6.4 DVD ISO Images: http://wiki.centos.org/Download
Installation of CentOS 6.4 with Screen shots: CentOS 6.4 Installation Guide
In Small, Fedora is for those who want to taste bleeding-edge technology and can’t wait for the program to get stable. Actually Fedora is a testing platform of Red Hat and a product is developed and tested here before entering the Enterprise distro. Fedora is a very nice distro, a large user forum and quiet a lot of packages in its repo. Fedora uses same YUM for Package Management.
Download Fedora 18 (Spherical Cow) DVD ISO’s: http://fedoraproject.org/en/get-fedora
Installation of Fedora 18 (Spherical Cow) with Screen shots: Fedora 18 (Spherical Cow) Installation Guide
8. Kali Linux
Kali Linux is a derivative of Debian. Kali is meant for penetration testing. It has been released only a month ago or so. The predecessor of Kali was Backtrack. All the Binary packages meant for Debian could be installed on Kali Linux and from here comes the power of Kali. Moreover the user forum supporting Debian adds strength to Kali. Kali comes with a number of penetration tools be it Wifi or Database or any other tools, build to be used instantly. Kali uses APT for Package Management.
Kali Linux is undoubtedly a penetration tester or an ethical hacker (I won’t talk about Black-Hat-Hacker) OS.
Download Kali Linux DVD ISO’s: Kali Linux 6
9. Arch Linux
Arch is a rolling release Operating system, where one time installation is sufficient and every time a new version is released distro can be upgraded without the need of fresh install. Pacman is the Package Manager for Arch Linux. Arch Linux comes for X86 processor architecture as well as X86_64 architecture and installer could be run from CD or USB. Arch is build to be kept simple from Developer’s point of view and not users point of view. Arch is super configurable and installable. It is truly a geeky distro which lets you understand every in and out of Linux System.
Download Arch Linux ISO Images: https://www.archlinux.org/download/
OpenSuse is a Linux distro which is free as far as it is not used for commercial usages and remains for personal usages. True Competitor of OpenSuse is Red Hat Enterprise Linux. It uses Yast for Package Management. Yast make it very easy to use and manage server application. Moreover Yast setup wizard can configure an e-mail, LDAP, file or Web server without any undue fuss or muss. It comes with snapper which makes it possible to roll-back or use older version of file, update and configuration. Thanks to Tumbleweed which makes it possible to implement rolling release, i.e., installed OS could be updated to latest release without any the need of any fresh release.
SUSE is getting more famous among admins because of the availability of Yast and such other application that automates the task of System Administrators and the feature which other distro of same calibre is missing.
Download OpenSuse 12.3 DVD ISO’s: http://software.opensuse.org/123/en
Installation of OpenSuse 12.3 with Screen shots: OpenSuse 12.3 Installation Guide
It is not the end. There are several hundred of distro, and every distro is unique to other in some manner or the other. It is not possible to mention here all of them hence only 1010 (there are only 10 kinds of people in the world, those who understand binary and those who don’t) of them are listed here. Spread the power of Linux. Share and help us Spread.