10 Practical Examples of Rsync Command in Linux

Rsync (Remote Sync) is the most commonly used command for copying and synchronizing files and directories remotely as well as locally in Linux/Unix systems.

With the help of the rsync command, you can copy and synchronize your data remotely and locally across directories, disks, and networks, perform data backups, and mirror between two Linux machines.

Rsync Commands
Rsync Local and Remote File Synchronization

This article explains 10 basic and advanced usage of the rsync command to transfer your files remotely and locally in Linux-based machines. You don’t need to be a root user to run the rsync command.

Some Advantages and Features of Rsync Command

  • It efficiently copies and sync files to or from a remote system.
  • Supports copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions.
  • It’s faster than scp (Secure Copy) because rsync uses a remote-update protocol which allows transferring just the differences between two sets of files. The first time, it copies the whole content of a file or a directory from source to destination but from next time, it copies only the changed blocks and bytes to the destination.
  • Rsync consumes less bandwidth utilization as it uses compression and decompression method while sending and receiving data on both ends.
The basic syntax of the rsync command
# rsync options source destination
Some common options used with rsync commands
  • -v : verbose
  • -r : copies data recursively (but don’t preserve timestamps and permission while transferring data.
  • -a : archive mode, which allows copying files recursively and it also preserves symbolic links, file permissions, user & group ownerships, and timestamps.
  • -z : compress file data.
  • -h : human-readable, output numbers in a human-readable format.

[ You might also like: How to Sync Files/Directories Using Rsync with Non-standard SSH Port ]

Install Rsync in Linux System

We can install the rsync package with the help of the following command in your Linux distribution.

$ sudo apt-get install rsync   [On Debian/Ubuntu & Mint] 
$ pacman -S rsync              [On Arch Linux]
$ emerge sys-apps/rsync        [On Gentoo]
$ sudo dnf install rsync       [On Fedora/CentOS/RHEL and Rocky Linux/AlmaLinux]
$ sudo zypper install rsync    [On openSUSE]

1. Copy/Sync Files and Directory Locally

Copy/Sync a File on a Local Computer

The following command will sync a single file on a local machine from one location to another location. Here in this example, a file name backup.tar needs to be copied or synced to /tmp/backups/ folder.

[[email protected]]# rsync -zvh backup.tar.gz /tmp/backups/

created directory /tmp/backups
backup.tar.gz

sent 224.54K bytes  received 70 bytes  449.21K bytes/sec
total size is 224.40K  speedup is 1.00

In the above example, you can see that if the destination is not already existed rsync will create a directory automatically for the destination.

Rsync Local Files
Rsync Local Files
Copy/Sync a Directory on Local Computer

The following command will transfer or sync all the files from one directory to a different directory in the same machine. Here in this example, /root/rpmpkgs contains some rpm package files and you want that directory to be copied inside /tmp/backups/ folder.

[[email protected]]# rsync -avzh /root/rpmpkgs /tmp/backups/

sending incremental file list
rpmpkgs/
rpmpkgs/httpd-2.4.37-40.module_el8.5.0+852+0aafc63b.x86_64.rpm
rpmpkgs/mod_ssl-2.4.37-40.module_el8.5.0+852+0aafc63b.x86_64.rpm
rpmpkgs/nagios-4.4.6-4.el8.x86_64.rpm
rpmpkgs/nagios-plugins-2.3.3-5.el8.x86_64.rpm

sent 3.47M bytes  received 96 bytes  2.32M bytes/sec
total size is 3.74M  speedup is 1.08
Rsync Local Directory
Rsync Local Directory

2. Copy/Sync Files and Directory to or From a Server

Copy a Directory from Local Server to a Remote Server

This command will sync a directory from a local machine to a remote machine. For example, there is a folder in your local computer “rpmpkgs” that contains some RPM packages and you want that local directory’s content sends to a remote server, you can use the following command.

[[email protected]:~]# rsync -avzh /root/rpmpkgs [email protected]:/root/

The authenticity of host '192.168.0.141 (192.168.0.141)' can't be established.
ED25519 key fingerprint is SHA256:bH2tiWQn4S5o6qmZhmtXcBROV5TU5H4t2C42QDEMx1c.
This key is not known by any other names
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/[fingerprint])? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.0.141' (ED25519) to the list of known hosts.
[email protected]'s password: 
sending incremental file list
rpmpkgs/
rpmpkgs/httpd-2.4.37-40.module_el8.5.0+852+0aafc63b.x86_64.rpm
rpmpkgs/mod_ssl-2.4.37-40.module_el8.5.0+852+0aafc63b.x86_64.rpm
rpmpkgs/nagios-4.4.6-4.el8.x86_64.rpm
rpmpkgs/nagios-plugins-2.3.3-5.el8.x86_64.rpm

sent 3.74M bytes  received 96 bytes  439.88K bytes/sec
total size is 3.74M  speedup is 1.00
Rsync Directory Remote System
Rsync Directory Remote System
Copy/Sync a Remote Directory to a Local Machine

This command will help you sync a remote directory to a local directory. Here in this example, a directory /root/rpmpkgs which is on a remote server is being copied in your local computer in /tmp/myrpms.

[[email protected]:~]# rsync -avzh [email protected]:/root/rpmpkgs /tmp/myrpms

[email protected]'s password: 
receiving incremental file list
created directory /tmp/myrpms
rpmpkgs/
rpmpkgs/httpd-2.4.37-40.module_el8.5.0+852+0aafc63b.x86_64.rpm
rpmpkgs/mod_ssl-2.4.37-40.module_el8.5.0+852+0aafc63b.x86_64.rpm
rpmpkgs/nagios-4.4.6-4.el8.x86_64.rpm
rpmpkgs/nagios-plugins-2.3.3-5.el8.x86_64.rpm

sent 104 bytes  received 3.49M bytes  997.68K bytes/sec
total size is 3.74M  speedup is 1.07
Rsync Remote Directory to Local
Rsync Remote Directory to Local

3. Rsync Over SSH

With rsync, we can use SSH (Secure Shell) for data transfer, using SSH protocol while transferring our data you can be ensured that your data is being transferred in a secured connection with encryption so that nobody can read your data while it is being transferred over the wire on the internet.

[ You might also like: How to Secure and Harden OpenSSH Server ]

Also when we use rsync we need to provide the user/root password to accomplish that particular task, so using the SSH option will send your logins in an encrypted manner so that your password will be safe.

Copy a File from a Remote Server to a Local Server with SSH

To specify a protocol with rsync you need to give the “-e” option with the protocol name you want to use. Here in this example, We will be using the “ssh” with the “-e” option and perform data transfer.

[[email protected]:~]# rsync -avzhe ssh [email protected]:/root/anaconda-ks.cfg /tmp

[email protected]'s password: 
receiving incremental file list
anaconda-ks.cfg

sent 43 bytes  received 1.10K bytes  325.43 bytes/sec
total size is 1.90K  speedup is 1.67
Rsync Copy Remote File to Local
Rsync Copy Remote File to Local
Copy a File from a Local Server to a Remote Server with SSH
[[email protected]:~]# rsync -avzhe ssh backup.tar.gz [email protected]:/backups/

[email protected]'s password: 
sending incremental file list
created directory /backups
backup.tar.gz

sent 224.59K bytes  received 66 bytes  64.19K bytes/sec
total size is 224.40K  speedup is 1.00
Rsync Copy Local File to Remote
Rsync Copy Local File to Remote

[ You might also like: How to Use Rsync to Sync New or Changed/Modified Files in Linux ]

4. Show Progress While Transferring Data with rsync

To show the progress while transferring the data from one machine to a different machine, we can use the ‘–progress’ option. It displays the files and the time remaining to complete the transfer.

[[email protected]:/]# rsync -avzhe ssh --progress /root/rpmpkgs [email protected]:/root/rpmpkgs

[email protected]'s password: 
sending incremental file list
rpmpkgs/
rpmpkgs/httpd-2.4.37-40.module_el8.5.0+852+0aafc63b.x86_64.rpm
          1.47M 100%   31.80MB/s    0:00:00 (xfr#1, to-chk=3/5)
rpmpkgs/mod_ssl-2.4.37-40.module_el8.5.0+852+0aafc63b.x86_64.rpm
        138.01K 100%    2.69MB/s    0:00:00 (xfr#2, to-chk=2/5)
rpmpkgs/nagios-4.4.6-4.el8.x86_64.rpm
          2.01M 100%   18.45MB/s    0:00:00 (xfr#3, to-chk=1/5)
rpmpkgs/nagios-plugins-2.3.3-5.el8.x86_64.rpm
        120.48K 100%    1.04MB/s    0:00:00 (xfr#4, to-chk=0/5)

sent 3.74M bytes  received 96 bytes  1.50M bytes/sec
total size is 3.74M  speedup is 1.00
Rsync Progress While Copying Files
Rsync Progress While Copying Files

5. Use of –include and –exclude Options

These two options allow us to include and exclude files by specifying parameters with these option helps us to specify those files or directories which you want to include in your sync and exclude files and folders with you don’t want to be transferred.

Here in this example, the rsync command will include those files and directory only which starts with ‘R’ and exclude all other files and directory.

[[email protected]:/]# rsync -avze ssh --include 'R*' --exclude '*' [email protected]:/var/lib/rpm/ /root/rpm

[email protected]'s password: 
receiving incremental file list
created directory /root/rpm
./
Requirename

sent 61 bytes  received 273,074 bytes  60,696.67 bytes/sec
total size is 761,856  speedup is 2.79
Rsync Include and Exclude Files
Rsync Include and Exclude Files

6. Use of –delete Option

If a file or directory does not exist at the source, but already exists at the destination, you might want to delete that existing file/directory at the target while syncing.

We can use the ‘–delete‘ option to delete files that are not there in the source directory.

Source and target are in sync. Now create a new file test.txt at the target.

[[email protected]:~]# cd /root/rpm/
[[email protected]:~/rpm]# touch test.txt
[[email protected]:~/rpm]# rsync -avz --delete [email protected]:/var/lib/rpm/ /root/rpm/

[email protected]'s password: 
receiving incremental file list
deleting test.txt
./
.dbenv.lock
.rpm.lock
Basenames
Conflictname
Dirnames
Enhancename
Filetriggername
Group
Installtid
Name
Obsoletename
Packages
Providename
Sha1header
Sigmd5
Suggestname
Supplementname
Transfiletriggername
Triggername
__db.001
__db.002
__db.003

sent 445 bytes  received 18,543,954 bytes  2,472,586.53 bytes/sec
total size is 71,151,616  speedup is 3.84

Target has the new file called test.txt, when synchronizing with the source with the ‘–delete‘ option, it removed the file test.txt.

Rsync Delete Option
Rsync Delete Option

7. Set the Max Size of Files to be Transferred

You can specify the Max file size to be transferred or sync. You can do it with the “–max-size” option. Here in this example, the Max file size is 200k, so this command will transfer only those files which are equal to or smaller than 200k.

[[email protected]:~]# rsync -avzhe ssh --max-size='200k' /var/lib/rpm/ [email protected]:/root/tmprpm

[email protected]'s password: 
sending incremental file list
created directory /root/tmprpm
./
.dbenv.lock
.rpm.lock
Conflictname
Enhancename
Filetriggername
Group
Installtid
Name
Obsoletename
Recommendname
Requirename
Sha1header
Sigmd5
Suggestname
Supplementname
Transfiletriggername
Triggername
__db.002

sent 129.52K bytes  received 396 bytes  28.87K bytes/sec
total size is 71.15M  speedup is 547.66
Rsync Set Max File Transfer Size
Rsync Set Max File Transfer Size

8. Automatically Delete source Files After Successful Transfer

Now, suppose you have the main web server and a data backup server, you created a daily backup and synced it with your backup server, now you don’t want to keep that local copy of backup in your web server.

So, will you wait for the transfer to complete and then delete that local backup file manually? Of Course NO. This automatic deletion can be done using the ‘–remove-source-files‘ option.

[[email protected]:~]# rsync --remove-source-files -zvh backup.tar.gz [email protected]:/tmp/backups/

[email protected]'s password: 
backup.tar.gz

sent 795 bytes  received 2.33K bytes  894.29 bytes/sec
total size is 267.30K  speedup is 85.40

[[email protected]:~]# ls -l backup.tar.gz

ls: cannot access 'backup.tar.gz': No such file or directory
Rsync Delete Source File After Transfer
Rsync Delete Source File After Transfer

9. Do a Dry Run with rsync

If you are a newbie using rsync and don’t know what exactly your command going to do. Rsync could really mess up the things in your destination folder and then doing an undo can be a tedious job.

[ You might also like: How to Sync Two Apache Web Servers/Websites Using Rsync ]

Use of this option will not make any changes to the files and shows the output of the command, if the output shows exactly the same you want to do then you can remove the ‘–dry-run‘ option from your command and run on the terminal.

[[email protected]:~]# rsync --dry-run --remove-source-files -zvh backup.tar.gz [email protected]:/tmp/backups/

[email protected]'s password: 
backup.tar.gz

sent 50 bytes  received 19 bytes  19.71 bytes/sec
total size is 267.30K  speedup is 3,873.97 (DRY RUN)
Rsync Dry Run
Rsync Dry Run

10. Rsync Set Bandwidth Limit and Transfer File

You can set the bandwidth limit while transferring data from one machine to another machine with the the help of ‘–bwlimit‘ option. This option helps us to limit I/O bandwidth.

[[email protected]]# rsync --bwlimit=100 -avzhe ssh  /var/lib/rpm/  [email protected]:/root/tmprpm/
[email protected]'s password:
sending incremental file list
sent 324 bytes  received 12 bytes  61.09 bytes/sec
total size is 38.08M  speedup is 113347.05

Also, by default rsync syncs changed blocks and bytes only, if you want explicitly want to sync the whole file then you use the ‘-W‘ option with it.

[[email protected]]# rsync -zvhW backup.tar /tmp/backups/backup.tar
backup.tar
sent 14.71M bytes  received 31 bytes  3.27M bytes/sec
total size is 16.18M  speedup is 1.10

That’s all with rsync now, you can see man pages for more options. Stay connected with Tecmint for more exciting and interesting tutorials in the future. Do leave your comments and suggestions.

If you liked this article, then do subscribe to email alerts for Linux tutorials. If you have any questions or doubts? do ask for help in the comments section.

If You Appreciate What We Do Here On TecMint, You Should Consider:

TecMint is the fastest growing and most trusted community site for any kind of Linux Articles, Guides and Books on the web. Millions of people visit TecMint! to search or browse the thousands of published articles available FREELY to all.

If you like what you are reading, please consider buying us a coffee ( or 2 ) as a token of appreciation.

Support Us

We are thankful for your never ending support.

161 thoughts on “10 Practical Examples of Rsync Command in Linux”

  1. What about daemon mode?

    Nobody explains, besides running under inetd and configuration files, how to actually use with source and destination.

    Reply
  2. I’d like to copy an external hard drive (iTunes Library, etc.) to another external hard drive (to serve as a back-up) when they are both connected to my MacBook Pro. I am not a programmer and have no experience or understanding of the codes and commands you all may take for granted.

    A friend told me about rsync and I have done a little exploring online. It would be so helpful if someone would provide the script that I could copy-and-paste into the Terminal window.

    Reply
  3. What about rsync and hidden files in one pass. Is this possible?

    I used rsync for ./Leslie/* and then for ./Leslie/\,*

    I did not notice anywhere where Icould combine the two rsync commands to save one pass

    Reply
    • I think you might to enter both arguments one after one as it can be done with cp or mv tools but only difference that it must be put in brackets like this: './Leslie/* ./Leslie/.*'.

      Reply
  4. Hi, its good stuff, I need to automate following job process, I need to do same for every one hour, I feel its better to make use of rsync, but how to use this for my application? I can not do any thing at remote server side. i got sftp access only, generally I am doing following things manually

    step1:

    # sftp [email protected]
    password
    

    step2:

    # cd /sourcedir
    

    step3:in above directory every day one directory will create, in this directory some files are dropping.

    # get -Pr 2018-02-26
    bye
    

    step4:

    # hadoop fs -put -f 2018-02-26 /destination
    

    I need to automate this

    Reply
  5. I need to rsync two machines losing connectivity as an standard. I mean they only see on a short period of time and i can’t know when that happens. have rsync some exit code? Or must i just use an script and try one and another time until they see? Any timeout setup to allow the search to bee short?

    Best regards.

    Reply
    • @Donald,

      If it’s a connection timeout because of SSH server is slow to respond, you can set the timeout option while running rsync as shown.

      # rsync -e 'ssh -o ConnectTimeout=120'
      
      Reply
  6. Hello friends,

    Can any one tell me how to keep update my backup machine.

    The problem is here.

    Source to destination synchronization need to be 100% accurate. Actually I have 2 servers that I need to be sync (100% copy of each other). I have tested it in the following way.

    rsyncdemo dir on both servers that I need to synchronize that contains further sub folders and files.
    Test 1:

    # rsync -uvr -e ssh  /rsyncdemo [email protected]:/rsyncdemo 
    

    It copies all data successfully no issues. but problem is that if I delete a file or folder on the source machine it do not delete it from the destination.

    Test2:

    # rsync -uvr --delete -e ssh  /rsyncdemo [email protected]:/rsyncdemo 
    
    It checks on both servers if I deliberately delete a file from the source. The rsync command check it on destination and copy it back to source machine.
    I want to keep the destination machine up to date according to the source machine. 
    
    How to block/restrict the rsync no to copy any file or folder from the destination to source.
    
    Thanks in Advance
    Reply

Leave a Reply to sandeep Cancel reply

Have a question or suggestion? Please leave a comment to start the discussion. Please keep in mind that all comments are moderated and your email address will NOT be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.