How to Check and Patch Meltdown CPU Vulnerability in Linux
Meltdown is a chip-level security vulnerability that breaks the most fundamental isolation between user programs and the operating system. It allows a program to access the operating system kernel’s and other programs’ private memory areas, and possibly steal sensitive data, such as passwords, crypto-keys and other secrets.
Spectre is a chip-level security flaw that breaks the isolation between different programs. It enables a hacker to trick error-free programs into leaking their sensitive data.
These flaws affect mobile devices, personal computers and cloud systems; depending on the cloud provider’s infrastructure, it might be possible to access/steal data from other customers.
We came across a useful shell script that scans your Linux system to verify whether your kernel has the known correct mitigations in place against Meltdown and Spectre attacks.
spectre-meltdown-checker is a simple shell script to check if your Linux system is vulnerable against the 3 “speculative execution” CVEs (Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures) that were made public early this year. Once you run it, it will inspect your currently running kernel.
Optionally, if you have installed multiple kernels and you’d like to inspect a kernel you’re not running, you can specify a kernel image on the command line.
It will significantly try to detect mitigations, including backported non-vanilla patches, not considering the kernel version number advertised on the system. Note that you should launch this script with root privileges to get accurate information, using the sudo command.
$ git clone https://github.com/speed47/spectre-meltdown-checker.git $ cd spectre-meltdown-checker/ $ sudo ./spectre-meltdown-checker.sh
From the results of the above scan, our test kernel is vulnerable to the 3 CVEs. In addition, here are a few important points to note about these processor bugs:
- If your system has a vulnerable processor and runs an unpatched kernel, it is not safe to work with sensitive information without the chance of leaking the information.
- Fortunately, there are software patches against Meltdown and Spectre, with details provided in Meltdown and Spectre research homepage.
The latest Linux kernels have been redesigned to defang these processor security bug. Therefore update your kernel version and
reboot the server to apply updates as shown.
$ sudo yum update [On CentOS/RHEL] $ sudo dnf update [On Fedora] $ sudo apt-get update [On Debian/Ubuntu] # pacman -Syu [On Arch Linux]
After reboot make sure to scan again with spectre-meltdown-checker.sh script.
You can find a summary of the CVEs from the spectre-meltdown-checker Github repository.