15 Useful ‘FFmpeg’ Commands for Video, Audio and Image Conversion in Linux – Part 2

In this article we are going to look at some options and examples of how you can use FFmpeg multimedia framework to perform various conversion procedures on audio and video files.

FFMPEG Command Examples in Linux

15 FFMPEG Command Examples in Linux

For more details about FFmpeg and steps to install it in different Linux distros, read the article from the link below:

FFmpeg Multimedia Framework Installation Guide on Linux – Part 1

Useful FFmpeg Commands

FFmpeg utility supports almost all major audio and video formats, if you want to check the ffmpeg supported available formats you can use ./ffmpeg -formats command to list all supported formats. If you are new to this tool, here are some handy commands that will give you a better idea about the capabilities of this powerful tool.

1. Get Video File Information

To get information about a file (say video.mp4), run the following command. Remember you have to specify an ouput file, but in this case we only want to get some information about the input file.

$ ffmpeg -i video.flv -hide_banner
Get Video Information

Get Video Information

Note: The -hide_banner option is used to hide a copyright notice shown my ffmpeg, such as build options and library versions. This option can be used to suppress printing this information.

For example, if you run the above command without adding -hide_banner option it will print the all FFmpeg tools copyright information as shown.

$ ffmpeg -i video.flv
Hide FFmpeg Version Information

Hide FFmpeg Version Information

2. Split a video into images

To turn a video to number of images, run the command below. The command generates the files named image1.jpg, image2.jpg and so on…

$ ffmpeg -i video.flv image%d.jpg
Split Video into Images

Split Video into Images

After successful execution of above command you can verify that the video turn into multiple images using following ls command.

$ ls -l

total 11648
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14592 Oct 19 13:19 image100.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14603 Oct 19 13:19 image101.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14584 Oct 19 13:19 image102.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14598 Oct 19 13:19 image103.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14634 Oct 19 13:19 image104.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14693 Oct 19 13:19 image105.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14641 Oct 19 13:19 image106.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14581 Oct 19 13:19 image107.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14508 Oct 19 13:19 image108.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14540 Oct 19 13:19 image109.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   12219 Oct 19 13:18 image10.jpg
-rw-r--r-- 1 tecmint tecmint   14469 Oct 19 13:19 image110.jpg

3. Convert images into a video

Turn number of images to a video sequence, use the following command. This command will transform all the images from the current directory (named image1.jpg, image2.jpg, etc…) to a video file named imagestovideo.mpg.

There are many other image formats (such as jpeg, png, jpg, etc) you can use.

$ ffmpeg -f image2 -i image%d.jpg imagestovideo.mpg
Convert Images to Video

Convert Images to Video

4. Convert a video into mp3 format

To convert an .flv format video file to Mp3 format, run the following command.

$ ffmpeg -i video.flv -vn -ar 44100 -ac 2 -ab 192 -f mp3 audio.mp3
Convert Video to Audio

Convert Video to Audio

Description about the options used in above command:

  1. vn: helps to disable video recording during the conversion.
  2. ar: helps you set audio sampling rate in Hz.
  3. ab: set the audio bitrate.
  4. ac: to set the number of audio channels.
  5. -f: format.

5. Covert flv video file to mpg format

To convert a .flv video file to .mpg, use the following command.

$ ffmpeg -i video.flv video.mpg
Convert Avi to MPG Video Format

Convert Avi to MPG Video Format

6. Convert video into animated gif

To convert a .flv video file to animated, uncompressed gif file, use the command below.

$ ffmpeg -i video.flv animated.gif.mp4
Covert Video to Animated Gif

Covert Video to Animated Gif

7. Convert mpg video file to flv

To convert a .mpg file to .flv format, use the following command.

$ ffmpeg -i video.mpg -ab 26k -f flv video1.flv
Convert Mpg to Flv Video Format

Convert Mpg to Flv Video Format

8. Convert avi video file to mpeg

To convert a .avi file to mpeg for dvd players, run the command below:

$ ffmpeg -i video.avi -target pal-dvd -ps 2000000000 -aspect 16:9 video.mpeg

Explanation about the options used in above command.

  1. target pal-dvd : Output format
  2. ps 2000000000 maximum size for the output file, in bits (here, 2 Gb).
  3. aspect 16:9 : Widescreen.
Convert Avi to Mpeg Video Format

Convert Avi to Mpeg Video Format

9. Convert a video to CD or DVD format

To create a video CD or DVD, FFmpeg makes it simple by letting you specify a target type and the format options required automatically.

You can set a target type as follows: add -target type; type can of the following be vcd, svcd, dvd, dv, pal-vcd or ntsc-svcd on the command line.

To create a VCD, you can run the following command:

$ ffmpeg -i video.mpg -target vcd vcd_video.mpg
Convert Video to DVD Format

Convert Video to DVD Format

10. Extract audio from video file

To extract sound from a video file, and save it as Mp3 file, use the following command:

$ ffmpeg -i video1.avi -vn -ar 44100 -ac 2 -ab 192 -f mp3 audio3.mp3

Explanation about the options used in above command.

  1. Source video : video.avi
  2. Audio bitrate : 192kb/s
  3. output format : mp3
  4. Generated sound : audio3.mp3
Extract Audio from Video

Extract Audio from Video

11. Mix a video and audio together

You can also mix a video with a sound file as follows:

$ ffmpeg -i audio.mp3 -i video.avi video_audio_mix.mpg
Mix Video and Audio

Mix Video and Audio

12. Increase/Reduce Video Playback Speed

To increase video play back speed, run this command. The -vf option sets the video filters that helps to adjust the speed.

$ ffmpeg -i video.mpg -vf "setpts=0.5*PTS" highspeed.mpg
Increase Video Playback Speed

Increase Video Playback Speed

You can also reduce video speed as follows:

$ ffmpeg -i video.mpg -vf "setpts=4.0*PTS" lowerspeed.mpg -hide_banner
Reduce Video Playback Speed

Reduce Video Playback Speed

13. Compare/Test Video and Audio Quality

To compare videos and audios after converting you can use the commands below. This helps you to test videos and audio quality.

$ ffplay video1.mp4
Test Video Quality

Test Video Quality

To test audio quality simply use the name of the audio file as follows:

$ ffplay audio_filename1.mp3
Test Audio Quality

Test Audio Quality

You can listen to them while they play and compare the qualities from the sound.

14. Add Photo or Banner to Audio

You can add a cover poster or image to an audio file using the following command, this comes very useful for uploading MP3s to YouTube.

$ ffmpeg -loop 1 -i image.jpg -i Bryan\ Adams\ -\ Heaven.mp3 -c:v libx264 -c:a aac -strict experimental -b:a 192k -shortest output.mp4
Add Image to Audio

Add Image to Audio

15. Add subtitles to a Movie

If you have a separate subtitle file called subtitle.srt, you can use following command to add subtitle to a movie file:

$ ffmpeg -i video.mp4 -i subtitles.srt -map 0 -map 1 -c copy -c:v libx264 -crf 23 -preset veryfast video-output.mkv

Summary

That is all for now but these are just few examples of using FFmpeg, you can find more options for what you wish to accomplish. Remember to post a comment to provide information about how to use FFmpeg or if you have encountered errors while using it.

Reference: https://ffmpeg.org/

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19 Responses

  1. mithil patil says:

    command using ffmpeg for live video streaming ???

  2. pooja thanekar says:

    how to change volume of video or audio file without re-encoding that?

  3. Rakesh Kr Satyam says:

    Very useful.
    Can we change/set codec value of video file without compressing file.

  4. Rakehsh Kr Satyam says:

    Very useful.

  5. shams says:

    Hi
    How can we compress the output image in ffmpeg. What parameter I need to add to make it.

    eg: ffmpeg -i input.jpg -vf scale=320:240 output_320x240.png I need compressed version of the output image

    • Aaron Kili says:

      @shams

      Make use of -compression_level especially for PNG output as in the example command above. The compression values range from 0-100 and the default is 100, the highest compression value meaning that it offers the smallest output file size. I hope this will help.

  6. bassel says:

    I have stupid question, if i just need my visitor play video from my website, why use ffmpeg to stream video on my website if i just want display a video

  7. Adam says:

    Thanks for sharing.Can you please show me to convert avi video to :(mediainfo) Format : MPEG-4
    Format profile : Base Media / Version 2
    Codec ID : mp42
    File size : 57.7 MiB
    Duration : 21mn 39s
    Overall bit rate mode : Variable
    Overall bit rate : 372 Kbps
    Encoded date : UTC 2016-03-06 07:59:42
    Tagged date : UTC 2016-03-06 07:59:42
    gsst : 0
    gstd : 1299690

    Video
    ID : 1
    Format : AVC
    Format/Info : Advanced Video Codec
    Format profile : [email protected]
    Format settings, CABAC : No
    Format settings, ReFrames : 1 frame
    Format settings, GOP : M=1, N=60
    Codec ID : avc1
    Codec ID/Info : Advanced Video Coding
    Duration : 21mn 39s
    Bit rate : 274 Kbps
    Maximum bit rate : 698 Kbps
    Width : 640 pixels
    Height : 360 pixels
    Display aspect ratio : 16:9
    Frame rate mode : Constant
    Frame rate : 25.000 fps
    Color space : YUV
    Chroma subsampling : 4:2:0
    Bit depth : 8 bits
    Scan type : Progressive
    Bits/(Pixel*Frame) : 0.048
    Stream size : 42.5 MiB (74%)
    Tagged date : UTC 2016-03-06 07:59:48

    Audio
    ID : 2
    Format : AAC
    Format/Info : Advanced Audio Codec
    Format profile : LC
    Codec ID : 40
    Duration : 21mn 39s
    Bit rate mode : Variable
    Bit rate : 96.0 Kbps
    Maximum bit rate : 104 Kbps
    Channel(s) : 2 channels
    Channel positions : Front: L R
    Sampling rate : 44.1 KHz
    Compression mode : Lossy
    Stream size : 14.9 MiB (26%)
    Title : IsoMedia File Produced by Google, 5-11-2011
    Encoded date : UTC 2016-03-06 07:59:45
    Tagged date : UTC 2016-03-06 07:59:48

    • Ravi Saive says:

      @Adam,

      Try the following ffmpeg command to convert AVI files to MP4 as shown.

      # ffmpeg -i file.avi -vcodec libx264 -vpre lossless_slow -crf 25 -acodec libfaac -threads 0 -t 60 file.mp4
      
  8. Dennis says:

    Thanks for this follow-up tutorial on FFmpeg. FFmpeg is an excellent, full-featured media toolkit, but its total capabilities can be quite overwhelming. The code examples help with understanding and as a starting point for further exploration.

    Before using FFmpeg, I usually want to know more about the input media file formats I will be using. For this, I usually use FFprobe (one of the useful utility programs included with the FFmpeg suite). FFprobe was created to extract detailed configuration info from a media file. For example:

    $ ffprobe -v quiet -pretty -of default -show_format -show_streams “video.flv” > “video.flv.info”

    FFprobe will produce a nicely formatted report saved to an output file as documentation and for further follow-up analysis. FFprobe can also generate the report in several other print formats (including JSON and XML).

    For repeat usage, I placed the above FFprobe command in a script file, and execute the script passing just the input filename as a parameter. The script handles the rest (including creating the output filename by appending ‘.info’ to the input filename). The double-quotes around the filenames are optional, but are required if the filenames contain spaces. Recommend including double-quotes in the script file to avoid later potential run-time errors.

  9. Hangover Man says:

    There are several errors: 1. hide_banner is a global option, so it should go before -i. 3. “-f image2” is superfluous. 4. You really don’t need any of those other options, and you should have used -ab 192k, not -ab 192. 6. This example does not make an animated GIF at all. 8. -ps does not limit file size; -fs does, but you shouldn’t use it anyway because it will just end when it reaches the specified limit. 10. The input already was MP3, so stream copy would be better (-c:a copy).

  10. K Raghunathan says:

    Extremely useful. Thanks.

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