Install Nginx with Ngx_Pagespeed (Speed Optimization) on Debian and Ubuntu

In our last article, we showed how to speed up Nginx performance with Ngx_Pagespeed on CentOS 7. In this tutorial, we will explain how to install Nginx with ngx_pagespeed on Debian and Ubuntu system to improve performance of Nginx websites.

Nginx [engine x] is a free and open-source, popular HTTP server powering many sites on the web: well known for its high-performance and stability. It also works as a reverse proxy, generic mail and TCP/UDP proxy server, and can additionally be deployed as a load balancer.

Ngx_pagespeed is a free and open source Nginx module intended for improving the speed of sites as well as reducing page load time; it drastically lowers the time it takes for users to view and interact with with content on your site.

Suggested Read: Install Mod_Pagespeed to Improve Apache Server Performance

Ngx_pagespeed Features:

  • HTTPS support with URL control.
  • Image optimization: stripping meta-data, dynamic resizing, recompression.
  • CSS and JavaScript minification, concatenation, inlining, and outlining.
  • Small resource inlining.
  • Deferring image and JavaScript loading.
  • HTML rewriting.
  • Cache lifetime extension.
  • Allows configuring for multiple servers and many others.

Step 1: Nginx Installation from Source

1. To install Nginx with ngx_pagespeed from source required following packages to be installed on the system.

$ sudo apt-get install build-essential zlib1g-dev libpcre3 libpcre3-dev unzip
Install Build Essential Tools on Ubuntu
Install Build Essential Tools on Ubuntu

2. Next, download source files of the latest version of Nginx (1.13.2 at the time of this writing) using the wget command and extract the files as shown below.

$ mkdir -p ~/make_nginx
$ cd ~/make_nginx
$ wget -c
$ tar -xzvf nginx-1.13.2.tar.gz
Download Nginx Source Package
Download Nginx Source Package

3. Next, get the ngx_pagespeed source files and unzip the compressed file like this.

$ wget -c
$ unzip
Download Ngx_Pagespeed Source Files
Download Ngx_Pagespeed Source Files

4. Then move into the unzipped ngx_pagespeed directory and download the PageSpeed optimization libraries to compile Nginx as follows.

$ cd ngx_pagespeed-
$ wget -c
$ tar -xvzf
Download PageSpeed Libraries
Download PageSpeed Libraries

Step 2: Configure and Compile Nginx with Ngx_Pagespeed

5. Next move into the nginx-1.13.2 directory, and configure the Nginx source using the following commands.

$ cd  ~/make_nginx/nginx-1.13.2
$ ./configure --add-module=$HOME/make_nginx/ngx_pagespeed- ${PS_NGX_EXTRA_FLAGS}
Configure Nginx with Ngx_Pagespeed Module
Configure Nginx with Ngx_Pagespeed Module

6. Next, compile and install Nginx as follows.

$ make
$ sudo make install
Install Nginx with Ngx_Pagespeed
Install Nginx with Ngx_Pagespeed

7. After the installation process is complete, run the commands below to create the necessary symlinks for Nginx.

$ sudo ln -s /usr/local/nginx/conf/ /etc/nginx
$ sudo ln -s /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx /usr/sbin/nginx

Step 3: Creating Nginx Unit File for SystemD

8. Here, you will have to manually create the Nginx unit file since systemd is the init system on newer versions of Debian and Ubuntu system

Fisrt, create the file /lib/systemd/system/nginx.service.

$ sudo vi /lib/systemd/system/nginx.service

Then download the NGINX systemd service file paste the unit file configuration into the file.

Description=The NGINX HTTP and reverse proxy server

ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/nginx -t
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
ExecStop=/bin/kill -s QUIT $MAINPID


Save the file and close it.

9. Now, start nginx service for the time being, and enable it to start at system boot by using the commands below.

$ sudo systemctl start nginx
$ sudo systemctl enable nginx

Important: After starting Nginx service, you may see an error as shown in the screen shot below.

systemd[1]: nginx.service: PID file /run/ not readable (yet?) after start: No such file or directory 
Nginx Failed to Start Error
Nginx Failed to Start Error

To solve it, open the Nginx configuration /etc/nginx/nginx.conf file and append the following line.

#pid  logs/;
pid  /run/;

Finally restart the nginx service again.

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
$ sudo systemctl start nginx
$ sudo systemctl status nginx

Step 4: Configure Nginx With Pagespeed Module

10. Now that Nginx is installed and running on your system, you need to enable the Ngx_pagespeed module. First create a directory where the module will cache the files for your website and set the suitable permissions on this directory as follows.

$ sudo mkdir -p /var/ngx_pagespeed_cache
$ sudo chown -R nobody:nogroup /var/ngx_pagespeed_cache

11. To enable the Ngx_pagespeed module, open the Nginx configuration file.

$ sudo vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

Add following Ngx_pagespeed configuration lines within the server block.

# Pagespeed main settings

pagespeed on;
pagespeed FileCachePath /var/ngx_pagespeed_cache;

# Ensure requests for pagespeed optimized resources go to the pagespeed
# handler and no extraneous headers get set.

location ~ "\.pagespeed\.([a-z]\.)?[a-z]{2}\.[^.]{10}\.[^.]+" { add_header "" ""; }
location ~ "^/ngx_pagespeed_static/" { }
location ~ "^/ngx_pagespeed_beacon" { }

Note: If you have deployed any nginx virtual hosts on the server, add the above pagespeed directives to each server block to enable Ngx_pagespeed on each site.

The following is a working example of the Nginx configuration file with Ngx_pagespeed enabled in the default virtual host.

Nginx Configuration with Ngx_pagespeed
#user  nobody;
worker_processes  1;
#error_log  logs/error.log;
#error_log  logs/error.log  notice;
#error_log  logs/error.log  info;
pid   /run/;

events {
    worker_connections  1024;
http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    #log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
    #                  '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
    #                  '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
    #access_log  logs/access.log  main;
    sendfile        on;
    #tcp_nopush     on;
    #keepalive_timeout  0;
    keepalive_timeout  65;
    #gzip  on;
    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  localhost;
        #charset koi8-r;
        #access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;
	# Pagespeed main settings
	pagespeed on;
	pagespeed FileCachePath /var/ngx_pagespeed_cache;
	# Ensure requests for pagespeed optimized resources go to the pagespeed
	# handler and no extraneous headers get set.
	location ~ "\.pagespeed\.([a-z]\.)?[a-z]{2}\.[^.]{10}\.[^.]+" { add_header "" ""; }
	location ~ "^/ngx_pagespeed_static/" { }
	location ~ "^/ngx_pagespeed_beacon" { }
	location / {
            root   html;
            index  index.html index.htm;

        #error_page  404              /404.html;
        # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
            root   html;
        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    proxy_pass;
        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    root           html;
        #    fastcgi_pass;
        #    fastcgi_index  index.php;
        #    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
        #    include        fastcgi_params;
        # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
        # concurs with nginx's one
        #location ~ /\.ht {
        #    deny  all;
    # another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
    #server {
    #    listen       8000;
    #    listen       somename:8080;
    #    server_name  somename  alias  another.alias;
    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    # HTTPS server
    #server {
    #    listen       443 ssl;
    #    server_name  localhost;
    #    ssl_certificate      cert.pem;
    #    ssl_certificate_key  cert.key;

    #    ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;
    #    ssl_session_timeout  5m;
    #    ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
    #    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;
    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }

Save and close the file.

12. Then check if the syntax of the Nginx configuration file is error free by running the command below, if it’s correct, you will see the output below:

$ sudo nginx -t

nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful

13. Afterwards restart Nginx server to effect the recent changes.

$ sudo systemctl restart nginx

Step 5: Testing Nginx with Ngx_pagespeed

14. Now test whether Ngx-pagespeed is now working in conjunction with Nginx using the cURL command below.

$ curl -I -p http://localhost
Check Nginx with Ngx_Pagespeed
Check Nginx with Ngx_Pagespeed

If you have failed to see the above header, then go back to step 10 and attentively go through the instructions to enable Ngx-pagespeed with the successive steps.

Ngx-pagespeed Github repository:

If you want to secure Nginx web server, then we suggest reading through this useful tutorial: The Ultimate Guide to Secure, Harden and Improve Performance of Nginx.

That is it! In this tutorial, we explained how to install Nginx with ngx_pagespeed on Debian and Ubuntu. If you’ve any queries do send us using our comments form form below.

Aaron Kili
Aaron Kili is a Linux and F.O.S.S enthusiast, an upcoming Linux SysAdmin, web developer, and currently a content creator for TecMint who loves working with computers and strongly believes in sharing knowledge.

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Leave a Reply
  1. Hey brother you have a big mistake here and you need to have uuid-dev installed to run command make and make install for users Ubuntu 16.04.

    $ sudo apt-get install uuid-dev
  2. Very nice tutorial, I managed to install Pagespeed and Nginx after many unsuccessful trials with other tutorials, and I managed to keep my website functional.

    There is a little mistake:

    ./configure --add-module=$HOME/nginx/ngx_pagespeed- ${PS_NGX_EXTRA_FLAGS}

    Will return an error because the folder we created is make_nginx, and not nginx alone.

  3. Hi,

    really interested in that how-to, everything was fine until step 2 where I got that error message:

    checking for getaddrinfo() ... found
    configuring additional modules
    adding module in /home/fred/nginx/ngx_pagespeed-
    ./configure: error: no /home/fred/nginx/ngx_pagespeed- was found

    Can you tell me what’s wrong?


      The problem is with your ngx_pagespeed source files, either the path to the config file is wrong or it is missing. Ensure that you have actually downloaded it.

      Try to follow the steps carefully once more.


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