20 Commands for Newbies Who Switched from Windows to Linux

So you are planning to switch from Windows to Linux, or have just switched to Linux? Oops!!! what I am asking! For what else reason would you have been here.

[ You might also like: How I Switched from Windows to Linux Mint ]

From my past experience when I was new, Linux commands and terminals really scared me, I was worried about the commands, as to what extent I have to remember and memorize commands to get myself fully functional with Linux.

No doubt online documentation, Linux books, man pages, and user community helped me a lot but I strongly believed that there should be an article with basic Linux commands in easy-to-learn and understand language. These Motivated me to Master Linux and to make it easy to use. This article is a step towards it.

1. Command: ls

The command “ls” stands for (List Directory Contents), List the contents of the folder, be it file or folder, from which it runs.

[email protected]:~# ls

Android-Games                     Music
Pictures                          Public
Desktop                           Tecmint.com
Documents                         TecMint-Sync
Downloads                         Templates

The command “ls -l” lists the content of the folder, in a long listing fashion.

[email protected]:~# ls -l

total 40588
drwxrwxr-x 2 ravisaive ravisaive     4096 May  8 01:06 Android Games
drwxr-xr-x 2 ravisaive ravisaive     4096 May 15 10:50 Desktop
drwxr-xr-x 2 ravisaive ravisaive     4096 May 16 16:45 Documents
drwxr-xr-x 6 ravisaive ravisaive     4096 May 16 14:34 Downloads
drwxr-xr-x 2 ravisaive ravisaive     4096 Apr 30 20:50 Music
drwxr-xr-x 2 ravisaive ravisaive     4096 May  9 17:54 Pictures
drwxrwxr-x 5 ravisaive ravisaive     4096 May  3 18:44 Tecmint.com
drwxr-xr-x 2 ravisaive ravisaive     4096 Apr 30 20:50 Templates

Command “ls -a“, list the content of a folder, including hidden files starting with '.'.

[email protected]:~# ls -a

.			.gnupg			.dbus
.adobe                  deja-dup                .grsync
.gstreamer-0.10         .mtpaint                .thumbnails
.HotShots               .mysql_history          .htaccess
.profile                .bash_history           .icons
.jedit                  .pulse                  .bashrc
.Xauthority		.gconf                  .local
.gftp                   .macromedia             .remmina
.ssh                    .xsession-errors 	.compiz
.xsession-errors.old	.config                 .gnome2

Note: In Linux file name starting with ‘.‘ is hidden. In Linux, every file/folder/device/command is a file. The output of ls -l is:

  • d (stands for directory).
  • rwxr-xr-x is the file permission of the file/folder for the owner, group, and world.
  • The 1st ravisaive in the above example means that the file is owned by user ravisaive.
  • The 2nd ravisaive in the above example means the file belongs to the user group ravisaive.
  • 4096 means file size is 4096 Bytes.
  • May 8 01:06 is the date and time of the last modification.
  • And at the end is the name of the File/Folder.

For more “ls” command examples read our series of articles:

2. Command: lsblk

The “lsblk” stands for (List Block Devices), print block devices by their assigned name (but not RAM) on the standard output in a tree-like fashion.

[email protected]:~# lsblk

NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda      8:0    0 232.9G  0 disk 
├─sda1   8:1    0  46.6G  0 part /
├─sda2   8:2    0     1K  0 part 
├─sda5   8:5    0   190M  0 part /boot
├─sda6   8:6    0   3.7G  0 part [SWAP]
├─sda7   8:7    0  93.1G  0 part /data
└─sda8   8:8    0  89.2G  0 part /personal
sr0     11:0    1  1024M  0 rom

The “lsblk -l” command list block devices in the ‘list‘ structure (not tree-like fashion).

[email protected]:~# lsblk -l

NAME MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda    8:0    0 232.9G  0 disk 
sda1   8:1    0  46.6G  0 part /
sda2   8:2    0     1K  0 part 
sda5   8:5    0   190M  0 part /boot
sda6   8:6    0   3.7G  0 part [SWAP]
sda7   8:7    0  93.1G  0 part /data
sda8   8:8    0  89.2G  0 part /personal
sr0   11:0    1  1024M  0 rom

Note: lsblk is a very useful and easiest way to know the name of the New Usb Device you just plugged in, especially when you have to deal with disk/blocks in the terminal.

[ You might also like: 10 Useful Commands to Collect System and Hardware Information in Linux ]

3. Command: md5sum

The “md5sum” stands for (Compute and Check MD5 Message-Digest), md5 checksum (commonly called a hash) is used to match or verify the integrity of files that may have changed as a result of a faulty file transfer, a disk error, or non-malicious interference.

[email protected]:~# md5sum teamviewer_linux.deb 

47790ed345a7b7970fc1f2ac50c97002  teamviewer_linux.deb

Note: The user can match the generated md5sum with the one provided officially. Md5sum is considered less secure than sha1sum, which we will discuss later.

4. Command: dd

Command “dd” stands for (Convert and Copy a file), can be used to convert and copy a file and most of the time is used to copy an iso file (or any other file) to a usb device (or any other location), thus can be used to make a bootable USB stick.

# dd if=/home/user/Downloads/debian.iso of=/dev/sdb1 bs=512M; sync

Note: In the above example the usb device is supposed to be sdb1 (You should Verify it using the command lsblk, otherwise you will overwrite your disk and OS), use the name of the disk very Cautiously!!!.

dd command takes some time ranging from a few seconds to several minutes in execution, depending on the size and type of file and read and write speed of Usb stick.

[ You might also like: How to Clone a Partition in Linux Using dd Command ]

5. Command: uname

The “uname” command stands for (Unix Name), print detailed information about the machine name, Operating System and Kernel.

[email protected]:~# uname -a

Linux tecmint 3.8.0-19-generic #30-Ubuntu SMP Wed May 1 16:36:13 
UTC 2013 i686 i686 i686 GNU/Linux

Note: uname shows the type of kernel. uname -a output detailed information. Elaborating the above output of uname -a.

  • Linux“: The machine’s kernel name.
  • tecmint“: The machine’s node name.
  • 3.8.0-19-generic“: The kernel release.
  • #30-Ubuntu SMP“: The kernel version.
  • i686“: The architecture of the processor.
  • GNU/Linux“: The operating system name.

6. Command: history

The history command stands for History (Event) Record, it prints the history of a long list of executed commands in the terminal.

[email protected]:~# history

 1  sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tualatrix/ppa
 2  sudo apt-get update
 3  sudo apt-get install ubuntu-tweak
 4  sudo add-apt-repository ppa:diesch/testing
 5  sudo apt-get update
 6  sudo apt-get install indicator-privacy
 7  sudo add-apt-repository ppa:atareao/atareao
 8  sudo apt-get update
 9  sudo apt-get install my-weather-indicator
 10 pwd
 11 cd && sudo cp -r unity/6 /usr/share/unity/
 12 cd /usr/share/unity/icons/
 13 cd /usr/share/unity

Note: Pressing “Ctrl + R” and then search for already executed commands which lets your command be completed with the auto-completion feature.

(reverse-i-search)`if': ifconfig

[ You might also like: Set Date and Time for Each Command You Execute in Bash History ]

7. Command: sudo

The “sudo” (superuser do) command allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or another user, as specified by the security policy in the sudoers list.

[email protected]:~# sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tualatrix/ppa

Note: sudo allows users to borrow superuser privileged, while a similar command ‘su‘ allows users to actually log in as superuser. Sudo is safer than su.

[ You might also like: 10 Useful Sudoers Configurations for Setting ‘sudo’ in Linux ]

It is not advised to use sudo or su for day-to-day normal use, as it can result in serious error if accidentally you did something wrong, that’s why a very popular saying in the Linux community is:

“To err is human, but to really foul up everything, you need a root password.”

8. Command: mkdir

The “mkdir” (make directory) command creates a new directory with a name path. However is the directory already exists, it will return an error message “cannot create a folder, folder already exists”.

[email protected]:~# mkdir tecmint

Note: Directory can only be created inside the folder, in which the user has to write permission. mkdir: cannot create directory `tecmint‘: File exists.

(Don’t confuse with a file in the above output, you might remember what I said at the beginning – In Linux, every file, folder, drive, command, script are treated as a file).

[ You might also like: Explanation of “Everything is a File” and Types of Files in Linux ]

9. Command: touch

The touch command stands for (update the access and modification times of each FILE to the current time). touch command creates the file, only if it doesn’t exist. If the file already exists it will update the timestamp and not the contents of the file.

[email protected]:~# touch tecmintfile

Note: touch can be used to create a file under the directory, on which the user has to write permission, only if the file doesn’t exist there.

10. Command: chmod

The Linux “chmod” command stands for (change file mode bits). chmod changes the file mode (permission) of each given file, folder, script, etc.. according to the mode asked for.

There exist 3 types of permission on a file (folder or anything but to keep things simple we will be using file).

Read (r)=4
Write(w)=2
Execute(x)=1

So if you want to give only read permission on a file it will be assigned a value of ‘4‘, for write permission only, a value of ‘2‘ and for execute permission only, a value of ‘1‘ is to be given. For read and write permission 4+2 = ‘6‘ is to be given, and so on.

Now, permission needs to be set for 3 kinds of users and user groups. The first is the owner, then the user group, and finally the world.

rwxr-x--x   abc.sh

Here the root’s permission is rwx (read, write and execute).
usergroup to which it belongs, is r-x (read and execute only, no write permission) and
for the world is –x (only execute).

To change its permission and provide read, write and execute permission to the owner, group, and world.

[email protected]:~# chmod 777 abc.sh

only read and write permission to all three.

[email protected]:~# chmod 666 abc.sh

read, write and execute to the owner and only execute to group and world.

[email protected]:~# chmod 711 abc.sh

Note: one of the most important commands useful for sysadmin and user both. On a multi-user environment or on a server, this command comes to the rescue, setting wrong permission will either make a file inaccessible or provide unauthorized access to someone.

11. Command: chown

The Linux “chown” command stands for (change file owner and group). Every file belongs to a group of users and an owner. It is used to do ‘ls -l‘ into your directory and you will see something like this.

[email protected]:~# ls -l 

drwxr-xr-x 3 server root 4096 May 10 11:14 Binary 
drwxr-xr-x 2 server server 4096 May 13 09:42 Desktop

Here the directory Binary is owned by user “server” and it belongs to usergroup “root” whereas directory “Desktop” is owned by user “server” and belongs to user group “server“.

This “chown” command is used to change the file ownership and thus is useful in managing and providing files to authorized users and usergroup only.

[email protected]:~# chown server:server Binary

drwxr-xr-x 3 server server 4096 May 10 11:14 Binary 
drwxr-xr-x 2 server server 4096 May 13 09:42 Desktop

Note: “chown” changes the user and group ownership of each given FILE to NEW-OWNER or to the user and group of an existing reference file.

12. Command: apt

The Debian-based apt command stands for (Advanced Package Tool). Apt is an advanced package manager for Debian based system (Ubuntu, Kubuntu, etc.), that automatically and intelligently search, install, update and resolves dependency of packages on Gnu/Linux system from the command line.

[email protected]:~# apt-get install mplayer

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
The following package was automatically installed and is no longer required:
  java-wrappers
Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove it.
The following extra packages will be installed:
  esound-common libaudiofile1 libesd0 libopenal-data 
libopenal1 libsvga1 libvdpau1 libxvidcore4
Suggested packages:
  pulseaudio-esound-compat libroar-compat2 nvidia-vdpau-driver vdpau-driver 
mplayer-doc netselect fping
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  esound-common libaudiofile1 libesd0 libopenal-data libopenal1 libsvga1 
libvdpau1 libxvidcore4 mplayer
0 upgraded, 9 newly installed, 0 to remove and 8 not upgraded.
Need to get 3,567 kB of archives.
After this operation, 7,772 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]? y
[email protected]:~# apt-get update

Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net raring Release.gpg
Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net raring Release.gpg
Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net raring Release.gpg
Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net raring Release.gpg
Get:1 http://security.ubuntu.com raring-security
Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com raring Release.gpg
Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net raring Release.gpg
Get:2 http://security.ubuntu.com raring-security   
Ign http://ppa.launchpad.net raring Release.gpg
Get:3 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com raring-updates
Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net raring Release.gpg
Hit http://in.archive.ubuntu.com raring-backports

Note: The above commands result in system-wide changes and hence requires a root password (Check ‘#‘ and not ‘$' as prompt). Apt is considered more advanced and intelligent as compared to yum command.

As the name suggests, apt-cache searches for a package containing sub package mpalyer. apt-get install, update all the packages, that are already installed, to the newest one.

[ You might also like: 25 APT-GET and APT-CACHE Commands ]

13. Command: tar

The tar command is a Tape Archive is useful in the creation of an archive, in a number of file format and their extraction.

[email protected]:~# tar -zxvf abc.tar.gz (Remember 'z' for .tar.gz)
[email protected]:~# tar -jxvf abc.tar.bz2 (Remember 'j' for .tar.bz2)
[email protected]:~# tar -cvf archieve.tar.gz(.bz2) /path/to/folder/abc

Note: A ‘tar.gz‘ means gzipped. ‘tar.bz2‘ is compressed with bzip which uses a better but slower compression method.

14. Command: cal

The “cal” (Calendar), is used to displays the calendar of the present month or any other month of any year that is advancing or passed.

[email protected]:~# cal 

May 2013        
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa  
          1  2  3  4  
 5  6  7  8  9 10 11  
12 13 14 15 16 17 18  
19 20 21 22 23 24 25  
26 27 28 29 30 31

Show calendar of the year 1835 for the month of February, which already has passed.

[email protected]:~# cal 02 1835

   February 1835      
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa  
 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  
 8  9 10 11 12 13 14  
15 16 17 18 19 20 21  
22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Shows calendar of the year 2145 for the month of July, which will be advancing

[email protected]:~# cal 07 2145

     July 2145        
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa  
             1  2  3  
 4  5  6  7  8  9 10  
11 12 13 14 15 16 17  
18 19 20 21 22 23 24  
25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Note: You need not turn the calendar of 50 years back, neither you need to make a complex mathematical calculation to know what day you were worn or your coming birthday will fall on which day.

15. Command: date

The date command prints the current date and time on the standard output, and can further be set.

[email protected]:~# date

Fri May 17 14:13:29 IST 2013
[email protected]:~# date --set='14 may 2013 13:57' 

Mon May 13 13:57:00 IST 2013

Note: This Command will be very useful in scripting, time, and date-based scripting, to be more perfect. Moreover changing the date and time using the terminal will make you feel GEEK!!!. (Obviously, you need to be root to perform this operation, as it is a system-wide change).

16. Command: cat

The “cat” stands for (Concatenation). Concatenate (join) two or more plain files and/or print contents of a file on standard output.

[email protected]:~# cat a.txt b.txt c.txt d.txt >> abcd.txt
[email protected]:~# cat abcd.txt
....
contents of file abcd 
...

Note: “>>” and “>” are called append symbol. They are used to append the output to a file and not on standard output. “>” symbol will delete a file already existed and create a new file hence for security reasons it is advised to use “>>” that will write the output without overwriting or deleting the file.

Before proceeding further, I must let you know about wildcards (you would be aware of wildcard entry, in most of the Television shows) Wildcards are a shell feature that makes the command line much more powerful than any GUI file manager. You see, if you want to select a big group of files in a graphical file manager, you usually have to select them with your mouse. This may seem simple, but in some cases, it can be very frustrating.

For example, suppose you have a directory with a huge amount of all kinds of files and subdirectories, and you decide to move all the HTML files, that have the word “Linux” somewhere in the middle of their names, from that big directory into another directory. What’s a simple way to do this? If the directory contains a huge amount of differently named HTML files, your task is everything but simple!

In the Linux command line that task is just as simple to perform as moving only one HTML file, and it’s so easy because of the shell wildcards. These are special characters that allow you to select file names that match certain patterns of characters. This helps you to select even a big group of files by typing just a few characters, and in most cases, it’s easier than selecting the files with a mouse.

Here’s a list of the most commonly used wildcards :

Wildcard			Matches
   *			zero or more characters
   ?			exactly one character
[abcde]			exactly one character listed
 [a-e]			exactly one character in the given range
[!abcde]		any character that is not listed
 [!a-e]			any character that is not in the given range
{debian,linux}		exactly one entire word in the options given

! is called not a symbol, and the reverse of string attached with '!' is true.

[ You might also like: 13 Basic Cat Command Examples in Linux ]

17. Command: cp

The “copy” stands for (Copy), it copies a file from one location to another location.

# cp /home/user/Downloads abc.tar.gz /home/user/Desktop

Note: cp is one of the most commonly used commands in shell scripting and it can be used with wildcard characters (Describe in the above block), for customized and desired file copying.

18. Command: mv

The “mv” command moves a file from one location to another location.

# mv /home/user/Downloads abc.tar.gz /home/user/Desktop

Note: mv command can be used with wildcard characters. mv should be used with caution, as moving of system/unauthorized file may lead to security as well as a breakdown of the system.

19. Command: pwd

The pwd command (print working directory), prints the current working directory with the full pathname from the terminal.

[email protected]:~# pwd 

/home/user/Desktop

Note: This command won’t be much frequently used in scripting but it is an absolute lifesaver for a newbie who gets lost in the terminal in their early connection with Linux. (Linux is most commonly referred to as nux or nix).

20. Command: cd

Finally, the frequently used cd command stands for (change directory), which changes the working directory to execute, copy, move write, read, etc. from the terminal itself.

[email protected]:~# cd /home/user/Desktop
[email protected]:~$ pwd

/home/user/Desktop

Note: cd comes to the rescue when switching between directories from the terminal. “Cd ~” will change the working directory to the user’s home directory, and is very useful if a user finds himself lost in the terminal. “cd ..” will change the working directory to parent directory (of current working directory).

These commands will surely make you comfortable with Linux. But it’s not the end. Very soon I will be coming with other commands which will be useful for ‘Middle-Level User. You will notice promotion in user-level from newbie to Middle-level-user.

In the next article, I will be coming up with commands like ‘Kill‘, ‘ps‘, ‘grep‘.

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78 thoughts on “20 Commands for Newbies Who Switched from Windows to Linux”

  1. dd is Disk Dump. I use it to back up a hard drive to a .iso file before I do any work on it ie recover files, upgrade os, etc.

    Nicely paced article

    Reply
  2. As i know; is a meta character which is used to separate two commands then what is the use of command after ; here in this dd command and what bs=512M used for?

    [email protected]:~# dd if=/home/user/Downloads/debian.iso of=/dev/sdb1 bs=512M; sync
    
    Reply

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